All references to the Chicago Defender and the Pittsburgh Courier are to the city
editions of those newspapers.
Abrahams, Roger D. Singing the Master: The Emergence of African-American
Culture in the Plantation South. New York: Pantheon, 1992.
Ace. ‘‘Hallelujah! Discloses Talents of Actors.’’ Chicago Defender, 1 February
1930, 10.
Adorno, Theodor W. ‘‘On Jazz.’’ Trans. Jamie Owen Daniels. Discourse 12.1
(fall–winter 1989–90): 45–69.
Agee, James. ‘‘Films.’’ The Nation, 16 December 1944, 753.
[.] ‘‘Jammin’ the Blues.’’ Time, 25 December 1944, 50.
. ‘‘Pseudo-Folk.’’ Partisan Review 11 (1944): 219–23.
Albright, Alex. ‘‘Micheaux, Vaudeville, and Black Cast Film.’’ Black Film Review
7.4 (n.d.): 6–9, 36.
‘‘Al Jolson Buys Film Rights to Green Pastures.’’ Chicago Defender, 6 June 1931, 7.
‘‘Al Jolson Certain to Get Lead in Film’s Pastures.’’ Chicago Defender, 20 July
1935, 8.
‘‘Al Jolson Given the Lead in 1933 Edition of Porgy.’’ Chicago Defender,
9 December 1933, 8.
‘‘Al Jolson Gives Morris ‘Lowdown’; ‘Hurt To My Heart.’ ’’ Pittsburgh Courier,
7 May 1938, 20.
‘‘Al Jolson May Play ‘De Lawd’ On the Screen.’’ Richmond Planet, 28 Septem-
ber 1935.
‘‘Al Jolson Pleads for Lead in ‘Emperor Jones’ on Stage.’’ Chicago Defender,
7 April 1934, 9.
‘‘Al Jolson’s Offer for Green Pastures as Talkie is Refused by Producers.’’ Chicago
Defender, 13 June 1931, 7.
Allen, Robert C. Horrible Prettiness: Burlesque and American Culture. Chapel
Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.
Allen, Robert C., and Douglas Gomery. Film History: Theory and Practice. New
York: Knopf, 1985.
‘‘All Race Movie Opens on Sunday.’’ Chicago Defender, 29 October 1938, 10.
Alpert, Hollis. The Life and Times of Porgy and Bess. New York: Knopf, 1990.
Altman, Rick. The American Film Musical. Bloomington: Indiana University
Press, 1987.
. Film/Genre. London: British Film Institute, 1999.
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