1 I am indebted to Norma Alarcón’s (1996) bold epistemic theorizations on how the
emergent ‘‘identity in diﬀerence’’ of Chicanas and women of color allows them to
negotiate their everyday survival and enunciation of public and textual space in
resistance to the intersections of nation-state, colonial, racial, sexist, and hetero-
sexist oppressions. Also, I appreciate how Disidentiﬁcations (1999: 7–34) by José
Esteban Muñoz deploys the emergent ‘‘identity in diﬀerence’’ paradigm to under-
stand how ‘‘people of color/queers of color’’ negotiate strategies of resistance to
racist discourses in the mainstream gay and lesbian community and homophobia
in the Latina/o, Asian American, and African American communities.
2 My use of ‘‘we’’ assumes or imagines a community of readers who directly relate
to or sympathize with the struggles for mestiza/o, Chicana/o, and Native Ameri-
can peoples to reclaim and articulate our identities, given a ﬁve hundred year his-
tory of brutal invasions in the Americas, slavery, manifest destiny, institutional
racism, sexism, human rights abuses, assassinations, the border patrol, police
shootings, and poverty magniﬁed by globalization.
3 See Emma Peréz, The Decolonial Imaginary (1999); José David Saldívar, Border
Matters (1997), and The Dialectics of Our America (1991); Louis Owens, Mixed-
blood Messages (1998); Alfred Arteaga, Chicano Poetics (1997); W. S. Penn, As We
Are Now (1997); Tey Diana Rebolledo, Women Singing in the Snow (1995); and Carl
Gutiérrez-Jones, Rethinking the Borderlands (1995).
4 For excellent discussion of resistant Chicana/o counterdiscourses, see Rafael
Pérez-Torres, Movements in Chicano Poetry (1995: 23–55).
5 In the post-1910 revolutionary Mexican nation-state imaginary, the mestizo be-
came the national subject. However, the oﬃcial narration of mestizaje projects
a patriarchal indignation at native women for allowing themselves to be colo-