1. At pres ent, there are two broad categories under which one may immigrate to
Canada: as a worker or as a sponsored family member or refugee. In the first case, one
may apply as a skilled worker, a Québec- selected skilled worker, a provincial nomi-
nee, for a start-up visa, as self- employed, or as a caregiver. There are three categories
of “skilled workers”: Federal Skilled Worker, Canadian Experience Class, and Federal
Skilled Trades program. Of the 250,000 permanent residents arriving in Canada every
year, approximately 60 percent enter in the “in de pendent” economic class. Of that
group, one- third (or 50,000) are the principal skilled immigrants the Canadian gov-
ernment strives to attract (Keung 2008).
2. Original data calculation by Dr. Murtaza Haider of Ryerson University using data
from the 2006 census. Personal correspondence, May 20, 2012. According to Statistics
Canada, the low income cut- oﬀ (lico) is the income limit below which one uses
more of their income on necessities such as food, shelter, and clothing.
3. The eﬃcacy of the term “immigrant” has been debated in scholarly work on glo-
balization and transnationalism, suggesting that it fails to accurately describe the mo-
bile subject. While Roger Rouse (1995) suggests “im/mi grant,” scholars of South Asian
communities abroad largely engage with discourses of diaspora in order to describe the
mobility of subjects. I shift between these terms through this book in order to empha-
size diﬀ erent aspects of migration and mobility.
4. This book is based on ethnographic fieldwork I have been doing in both Pakistan
and Canada since 2002. Specifically, I conducted 125 interviews with government of-
ficials, nonprofit workers, mullahs, and Pakistani Muslim women ranging in age from
their twenties to their sixties. All of the women identify with Pakistan in some way,
and the vast majority identify as Muslim.
5. The government of Canada conducted a study of fifty thousand cab drivers in
Canada and found that one in three taxi drivers is born in India or Pakistan. Among
them they found doctors, engineers, and architects. “Who Drives a Taxi in Canada?,”
last modified on May 28, 2012, http:// www . cic . gc . ca / english / resources / research / taxi
/ sec02 . asp#s2 - 2. See also “Overqualified Immigrants Really Are Driving Taxis in