NOTES
Introduction
1 For general overviews of the move away from import substitution in Latin Amer-
ica see: Victor Bulmer-Thomas, The Economic History of Latin America Since
Independence, Cambridge Latin American Studies, vol. 77 (New York: Cam-
bridge University Press, 1994), pp. 278–88, 377–87, 419; Eliana Cardoso and Ann
Helwege, Latin America’s Economy: Diversity, Trends, and Conflicts (Cam-
bridge: mit Press, 1995), pp. 98–107; and James Dietz, ‘‘A Brief Economic His-
tory,’’ and Oswaldo Sunkel, ‘‘From Inward-Looking Development to Develop-
ment from Within,’’ both in Latin America’s Economic Development:
Confronting Crisis, 2d ed., ed. James Dietz (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1995), pp. 3–
19 and 355–81.
2 During the first two years of the Gaviria administration, the policies associated
with apertura were transformed from the relatively cautious gradual plan an-
nounced in February 1990 (by Gaviria’s predecessor) to a much more radical liber-
alization program. See José Antonio Ocampo, ‘‘La internacionalización de la
economía colombiana,’’ in Colombia ante la economía mundial, ed. Miguel
Urrutia M. (Bogotá: Tercer Mundo and Fedesarrollo, 1993), pp. 17–66. An indica-
tion of the effect on manufacturers oriented toward the domestic market is pro-
vided by Ocampo’s figures (p. 50) on nominal and effective rates of protection for
consumer nondurables, which dropped from 63 percent to 17.5 percent and from
137 to 41 percent, respectively. For the general context of apertura debates in
Colombia, see José Antonio Ocampo, ‘‘La apertura externa en perspectiva,’’ in
Apertura económica y sistema financiero: Compilación de los documentos pre-
sentados en el XII simposio sobre mercado de capitales, ed. Florángela Gómez
Ordóñez (Bogotá: Asociación Bancaria de Colombia, 1990), pp. 40–97, as well as
Gabriel Misas Arango, ‘‘De la industrialización sustitutiva a la apertura: El caso
colombiano,’’ in Gestión económica estatal de los ochentas: Del ajuste al cambio
institucional, vol. 2, ed. Luis Bernardo Florez E. and Ricardo Bonilla González
(Bogotá: Centro de Investigaciones Para el Desarrollo cid, 1995), pp. 5–61.
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