I N T R O D U C T I O N
1 I am indebted in particular to the valuable histories and scientiﬁc studies of Mars
and its explorers that are o√ered in Cooper 1980; Ezell and Ezell 1984; Wilford
1990; Sheehan 1996; Raeburn 1998; Moore 1999; Strauss 2001; Bergreen 2000;
Morton 2002; and Hartmann 2003, among others.
2 On the ‘‘overwhelming fascination exerted by Mars’’ in science ﬁction, see
Guthke 1990, 367 n.54.
3 Albedo is an index of reflexivity.
4 The issues that are raised by the cultural study of science are too complex to
discuss adequately in a single note or, for that matter, a single chapter. I deal with
some of them in previous works (Markley 1993; Markley 1999a; Markley 1999c).
For important contributions to the cultural study of science, see particularly
Serres 1982; Woolgar 1988; Haraway 1991; Hayles 1991, 76–85; Latour 1987, 1993;
Rotman 1993; Shapin 1994, 1999; Pickering 1995; Barbara Herrnstein Smith 1997,
243–66; and Plotnitsky 2002.
5 See Crumley 1994, 1–11. See also Winterhalder 1994 and Ingerson 1994. On the
idea that socionatural ‘‘totalities’’ are continually degrading the very conditions
on which their survival depends, see Lewontin and Levins 1985, 133–42, 272–285.
1 . M A R S A N D T H E L I M I T S O F A N A L O G Y
1 This section extends material found in Markley et al. 2001, ‘‘early views.’’ In this
section of Red Planet, animations, photographs, and graphics illustrate essen-
tial scientiﬁc concepts for planetary astronomy: opposition, conjunction, good
seeing, retrograde motion, and so on. Good introductions to the science of
areography can be found in Sheehan 1988, 1996; Burgess 1978, 1990; Moore 1977,
1999; Murray, Malin, and Greeley 1981; Wilford 1990; and Raeburn 1998. Post-
Viking discussions of the suitability of Mars for some form of life can be found in