The Role of Memory in the Indian Movement
When they separated from previous activist networks, the four amp
leaders that I have studied in this book drew on memory, understood as
the capacity to form historical interpretations based on the impact of past
experiences on the present, in order to renovate the indigenous movement
of the 1930s and then to respond to the changed historical circumstances
after 1952.1 Gregorio Titiriku and Toribio Miranda emphasized the politi-
cal and cultural importance of worshiping Aymara gods, advocated for an
end to segregation in public plazas and streetcars, worked to secure au-
tonomous education for Indians, and rejected symbols of white and mes-
tizo hegemony. This generation based its activism in part on the previous
generation of indigenous activists that had participated in the civil war of
1898–1899. For instance, it was crucial for them to draw on the direct par-
ticipation of Toribio Miranda’s stepfather in the early network of apode-
rados, mallkus, jilaqatas, and segundas. The amp’s later adherents, such
as Meliton Gallardo and Andrés Jach’aqullu, were in turn inspired by the
memory of men like Miranda and Titiriku. They also reaped the benefits
of their predecessors’ organizational structure of ayllus and ex- haciendas,
which I have defined here as a network. They used this network grounded
in memory to oppose the agrarian reform in 1953, reject state- issued iden-
tification cards and the civil registration of weddings and births, and re-
sist public Spanish- speaking elementary schools. These leaders faced an
Conclusion The AMP’s Innovations and
Its Legacy in Bolivia under
Evo Morales
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