Glossary
Achachila (Aymara): Good spirit, grandfathers, grandparents, ancestors.
Agregado: An indigenous peasant born in an indigenous community, whose an-
cestors had received a portion of land from the original inhabitants of the
ayllu.
Alaxsaya/Manqhasaya (Aymara): Upper side, one half of an ayllu/lower side, the
other half of the ayllu; see also Aransaya/Urinsaya.
Alcalde Escolar: Indigenous educational officer charged with the ayllu’s schooling
activities. An Alcalde Escolar usually lived in the community.
Alcaldes mayores: High- level leaders among Indians from late colonial times to
1953. They replaced the mallkus (Aymara) or kuraqas (Quechua) from pre-
Spanish times and colonial times.
Alcaldes Mayores Particulares (amp): A large network of indigenous activists who
promoted the Indian law, literally means major autonomous mayors.
Ama sua, ama llulla, ama khella (Quechua): The trilogy or Inka moral code: Don’t
steal, don’t lie, and don’t be lazy.
Apacheta (Aymara): A sacred place, dedicated to the spirit of the mountains, a
favorite place of worship among Aymara.
Apoderado: A person with the power of attorney for the ayllu or Indian commu-
nity. Since 1874 the term has referred to the legal Indian representative of an
Indian community.
Aransaya/Urinsaya (Quechua): A section of the ayllu, meaning one half, for in-
stance a lower part and a higher part. See also Alaxsaya/Manqhasaya.
Arrendero: Peon that rents land.
Arriendo: The land that peons work; peons do not directly own land, so they pay
rent to the landlord or hacendado.
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