∞. National Statistics Institute, http://www.ine.gov.bo.
≤. I follow Begoña Aretxaga (2003) in my use of the term ‘‘encounters’’ between
citizens and the state, although she does not discuss citizenship explicitly
≥. This gender specificity was underlined later, with the word virtus in Latin,
which became virtú in Italian (Machiavelli), and which derives etymologically
from the Latin vir, meaning ‘‘man’’ (Oldfield 1990).
∂. I follow Elizabeth Frazer (1998) in distinguishing between philosophical com-
munitarianism and political communitarianism. The former is based upon a
criticism of the abstract individualism of liberal political thought and repre-
sented by philosophers such as Michael Sandel and Alisdair MacIntyre. See
the collection by Avineri and de-Shalit (1992) for an overview of this debate.
Political communitarianism is most clearly associated with the work of Amitai
Etzioni (1993), but see also many of the practices of New Labour in the United
Kingdom and some local schemes of community empowerment in the United
States, discussed by Rose (1999) and Cruikshank (1999), respectively.
∑. For discussion of the Bolivian indigenous movement with a focus on Ka-
tarismo, see Rivera Cusicanqui (2003 ), Hurtado (1986), Patzi Paco
(1999), Albó (2002), and Hylton et al. (2003).
∏. Gonzalo Sanchez de Lozada won with around 22 percent of the vote.
π. National Electoral Court of Bolivia, http://www.cne.org.bo; National Con-
∫. The ayllu is a form of indigenous community organization in the Andes