This book is borne on the contributions of many individuals whom I
can never adequately thank. More than that, it would not have been
possible without the dedication of many people to social movements
that seek the truth about the past and justice in the future. In that
respect, I am grateful to the many organizations in Panama with whom
I had the fortune to collaborate, and to the Fellowship of Reconcilia-
tion, which gave me the opportunity to work on Panama for more than
a decade.
For teaching me about Panama, I thank Orlando Acosta, Jesús
Alemancia, Mariela Arce, Olier Avila, Ramiro Castrejon, Marco Gan-
dásegui, Jaime Espinoza González, Arturo Griffiths, Sayda de Gri-
maldo, Tomás Guardia, Raúl Leis, Fernando Manfredo Jr., Gonzalo
Menéndez, Juan Méndez, Rodrigo Noriega, Conrado Sanjur, Walter
Smith, Nicolasa Terreros, and Lamoin Werlein-Jaén. I am thankful
to the many people who spoke with me about the U.S. military and
Panama, many of whom are cited in this book, and some of whom
preferred to withhold their names.
Researchers rely profoundly on reference librarians. I am indebted
to the staff of the San Francisco Public Library, U.S. Army History
Institute, and Jimmy Carter Presidential Library, and to Martin Gor-
don of the Army Corps of Engineers Archives, Richard Boylan of
the National Archives, Steve Wofford of the Livermore Laboratory
archives, and Bryan Stoneburner of the Naval Postgraduate School
For help in obtaining important documents and articles, I am grate-
ful to Fernando Eleta Casanova, Henry Heitman, Eric Jackson, Betty
Brannan Jaén, Rafael Pérez Jaramillo, Nick Morgan, Henry Raymont,
Craig Reinarman, Juan Antonio Samudio, Nathan and Joy Schnur-
man, Lenny Siegel, and Rick Stauber. Rick and I formed an unusual
alliance—an explosives expert and a pacifist—in the quest for U.S.
accountability for ordnance left behind in Panama. Neil Popovic gave
legal assistance with Freedom of Information Act (foia) requests that
yielded significant new information. On the receiving end of foia
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