1 See Velma Newton, The Silver Men: West Indian Labour Migration to
Panama, 1850–1914 (Kingston: University of the West Indies, 1984);
Michael Conniff, Black Labor on a White Canal: Panama, 1904–1981
(Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1985); John Biesanz, ‘‘Race
Relations in the Canal Zone,’’ Phylon 11 (1950): 23–30; George Wester-
man, ‘‘School Segregation on the Panama Canal Zone,’’ Phylon 15 (1954):
The words White, Black, Latino, and Indigenous are used in this book
in two ways. First, they signify actual groups of people with different
ethnicity and skin color. But since race is at least in part socially con-
structed, they also refer to perceptions of social groups, often with the
charged assumptions that are prevalent in racist societies.
2 For further discussion of nature and civilization in U.S–Latin American
relations, see Fredrick Pike, The United States and Latin America: Myths
and Stereotypes of Civilization and Nature (Austin: University of Texas
Press, 1992), and George Black, The Good Neighbor: How the United
States Wrote the History of Central America and the Caribbean (New
York: Pantheon, 1988).
3 The exception to this was in 1907, after pneumonia had killed hundreds
of West Indians and the Canal Commission was forced to recruit thou-
sands of new European laborers: Newton, Silver Men, 133, 154; Joseph
Bucklin Bishop, The Panama Gateway (New York: Charles Scribner’s
Sons, 1913), 300–1. See also Conniff, Black Labor.
4 Marie Gorgas and Burton J. Hendrick, William Crawford Gorgas: His
Life and Work (New York: Doubleday, Page and Company), 140.
5 Elting E. Morison, ed., The Letters of Theodore Roosevelt, vol. 4, 1007–
8; Stephen J. Randall, Colombia and the United States: Hegemony and
Interdependence (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1992), 85.
6 William Franklin Sands, Our Jungle Diplomacy (Chapel Hill: University
of North Carolina Press, 1944), 31.
7 Alfred Charles Richard Jr., The Panama Canal in American National
Consciousness, 1870–1990 (New York: Garland Publishing, 1990), 151,