This volume originated in a project called “Responding to Hegemony: The
Dynamics of Social Movements,” sponsored by the Program on Global Se-
curity and Cooperation (gsc) of the Social Science Research Council, with
funding from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation.
The project consisted of two international workshops and the publi-
cations they generated. I am grateful to John Tirman and Itty Abraham,
the coordinators of those workshops, for conceptualizing and giving mo-
mentum to the project, which has culminated in this collection of essays. I
would also like to thank Professors Eric Hershberg and Gilbert Joseph for
their helpful suggestions regarding the organization of the workshops and
of this volume; Valerie Millholland, the Duke University Press editor who
very helpfully guided the manuscript through the acquisition and edito-
rial stages of publication; and the two anonymous readers whose helpful,
critical suggestions have been incorporated into the ﬁnal versions of these
essays and (to the best of my ability) into the structure of the volume.
Because the discussions herein cover so much historical ground and as-
sume some previous knowledge of the topics at hand, Alan Knight gra-
ciously agreed to draw up a timeline of key events, a list of key individuals,
and a list of key institutions, events, and places, all of which are included
in “A Reader’s Guide,” which appears after these acknowledgments. While
I contributed some items to the timeline and the lists, the comprehensive
historical memory required to compile the reader’s guide belongs to Knight.
I am grateful for his extra effort to make the volume more accessible to the