Introduction: The Contours of a Filipino American History
1 Paul Ong and Tania Azores, ‘‘The Migration and Incorporation of Filipino
Nurses,’’ in The New Asian Immigration in Los Angeles and Global Restructur-
ing, ed. Paul Ong, Edna Bonacich, and Lucie Cheng (Philadelphia: Temple
University Press, 1994), 164.
2 Ibid., 164, 165.
3 Christine M. Pizer, Ann F. Collard, Christine E. Bishop, Sherline M. James,
and Beverly Bonaparte, ‘‘Recruiting and Employing Foreign Nurse Gradu-
ates in a Large Public Hospital System,’’ Hospital and Health Services Admin-
istration 39.1 (spring 1994): 17.
4 New York leads these states in employing the majority of foreign nurse
graduates. In 1989, it employed 44 percent of this labor force (ibid.).
5 Ong and Azores, ‘‘The Migration and Incorporation of Filipino Nurses,’’
6 According to Ong and Azores, ‘‘The proportion of Filipinos who are in the
health professions (including doctors and nurses) in Chicago and New York
is more than twice that in Los Angeles and more than six times that in San
Francisco.’’ See Tania Fortunata Azores-Gunter, ‘‘Status Achievement Pat-
terns of Filipinos in the United States’’ (Ph.D. diss., University of Califor-
nia, Los Angeles, 1987), cited in Ong and Azores, ‘‘The Migration and
Incorporation of Filipino Nurses,’’ 182.
7 Alfonso Mejía, Helena Pizorkí, and Erica Royston, Physician and Nurse Mi-
gration: Analysis and Policy Implications (Geneva: World Health Organiza-
tion, 1979), 43–45.
8 James A. Tyner, ‘‘The Global Context of Gendered Labor Migration from
the Philippines to the United States,’’ American Behavioral Scientist 42.4
(1999): 671.
9 Mejía, Pizorkí, and Royston, Physician and Nurse Migration: Analysis and
Policy Implications, 47.
10 For example, in their 1992 study, Paul Ong, Lucie Cheng, and Leslie Evans
included a number of Asian countries (India, South Korea, Philippines,
China, Hong Kong, and Thailand) as well as occupations (math and com-
puter scientists, natural scientists, social scientists, engineers, physicians,
nurses, postsecondary teachers) to illustrate the significance of professional
migrant flows to the United States and other Western nations. Although the
authors did not foreground Filipino nurse migration, their table of immigra-
tion of highly educated Asians to the United States between 1972 and 1985
revealed that the number of Filipino nurses (20,482) surpassed those of
other Asian highly educated laborers in nine di√erent occupations. Paul M.
Ong, Lucie Cheng, and Leslie Evans, ‘‘Migration of Highly Educated Asians
and Global Dynamics,’’ Asian and Pacific Migration Journal 1.3–4 (1992):
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