N O T E S
In the notes and bibliography, sources originally published in Chinese have be
translated into English. The original Chinese characters follow the translation
the ﬁrst mention of each source. Entries in the bibliography have been group
into two categories: works published in Chinese and works published in Engli
The bibliography concludes with a list of the ﬁlms of Hou Hsiao-hsien.
1 See, for instance, Seth Faison, ‘‘Taiwan’s New Doctrine Unintelligible in Chines
New York Times, July 21, 1999, A6.
2 Since its rise in the late eighteenth century and the early nineteenth, the idea of
tion, which divides the world into a mosaic of distinct and differentiated entiti
has been one of the most important and formative concepts in modern West
thought—a concept Benedict Anderson has called ‘‘the most universally legitim
value in the political life of our time’’ (Benedict Anderson, Imagined Commu
ties: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism, rev. ed. [London: Ver
3 Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, Empire (Cambridge: Harvard University Pre
4 As one observer noted, many scholars and activists saw the master theory p
posed by the book as an appealing blueprint for understanding the complexit
of current global interaction and conflict—particularly after the events of Septe
ber 11 spotlighted the intricate and widely distributed networks of global terr
ism. See Dean Kuipers, ‘‘The Rise of the New Global ‘Empire,’’’ Los Angeles Tim
October 1, 2001.
5 Hardt and Negri, Empire, xii–xiii.
6 In addition to Benedict Anderson’s frequently cited book, a few of the more i
portant works in English include Peter Worsley’s The Third World (Chicago: U
versity of Chicago Press, 1964), Hans Kohn’s Nationalism: Its Meaning and H
tory (New York: Van Nostrand, 1965), Ernest Gellner’s Nations and Nation
ism (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1983), Partha Chatterjee’s Nationalist Thought a