1. See the introduction [1–8] and thesis 1 in appendix 1 . All of the text
of Ethics is organized by sections numbered in brackets placed at the begin-
nings of paragraphs, in order to facilitate cross- references within the manu-
2. This must be a case of the “impotency of what- must- be [Ohnmacht des
Sollens]” (Habermas 1992, 78 ﬀ. His hopes ride instead on the coerciveness of
the “Rule of Law” grounded in ethical- democratic legitimacy with validity in
the face of the political community (see Habermas 1992, and speciﬁcally the
postscript  in the English translation, 1996, 463 ﬀ.).
3. Dussel 1973.
4. “Center” and “periphery” are recurrent analytical categories throughout
this work (see thesis 1 in appendix 1, and §I.5 in this book).
5. “Globality,” as I employ the term, is not abstract “universality,” as can be
seen in thesis 2  (all the numbered theses cited in the notes may be found
in appendix 1).
6. My dialogue with K.- O. Apel began in Freiburg that same November.
7. Throughout this book the term “victim” is employed strictly as an ana-
lytical philosophical category.
8. We will return to this theme, but let me already highlight that 20 percent
of the wealthiest people on this planet consume 82 percent of the income pro-
duced by humanity; the poorest 80 percent consume only 18 percent of what is
left, and the poorest 20 percent consume only 1.4 percent of such wealth (see
Human Development Report 1992, 35). Furthermore, rebellions of the “poor”
such as those of the indigenous communities organized in the Zapatista Na-
tional Liberation Army (ezLn) based in the region of Chiapas in southeastern
Mexico (whose uprising began January 1, 1994) reveal the ﬁssures in the domi-
nant system, which is not monolithic block without contradictions.
9. It is in that context particularly that I sought to demonstrate the “posi-
tivity” of the poor, of the widow and the orphan, based upon their ontological