I N T R O D U C T I O N : E V E RY D AY C O N V E R S I O N S
1 Giorgio Agamben, Homer Sacer, and Means without End.
2 Mi grants here include current mi grants, returning mi grants, and secondary
3 Shifts in veiling practices include adoption of abaya and nikab. Changes in everyday
language practices include shifts in greetings (e.g., from “marhaba” to “as- Sala’m
‘Alekum”), and good- byes (e.g., “Khuda Haﬁz” to “Allah Haﬁz”). An example of
shifts in gendered relations is the gendered segregation of wedding ceremonies.
An example of shifts in religious ceremonies include the burgeoning of halaqa that
often replaced “Qur’an Khanis” and “Khatme Qur’an.”
4 En glish translation: There is no God but God, and Muhammad is the Messenger of
5 Domestic workers of a myriad of ethnonational backgrounds develop Islamic
pieties in Kuwait and the Gulf. I focused on South Asian domestic workers for
reasons I discuss in appendix 1.
6 T. Asad, “Comments on Conversion,” 263.
7 Agrama, Questioning Secularism, 9.
8 Weber, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism.
9 Casanova, Public Religions in the Modern World.
10 Viswanathan, Outside the Fold.
11 Said, Orientalism.
12 For works that critique these understandings, see Deeb, An Enchanted Modern;
Kurtzman, Modernist Islam, 1840–1940; Lawrence, Shattering the Myth; Mamdani,
Good Muslim, Bad Muslim; Said, Orientalism, and Culture and Imperialism.
13 Foucault, The History of Sexuality, 34.
14 Mahmood, “Feminist Theory,” “Rehearsed Spontaneity and the Conventionality of
Ritual,” “Ethical Formation and Politics of Individual Autonomy in Con temporary
Egypt,” Politics of Piety; and “Secularism, Hermeneutics, and Empire.” Also see
Hirschkind, “The Ethics of Listening,” and The Ethical Soundscape; and Henkel,