1. An image of dismemberment—a hand that is missing two fingers—has also been
used in images commemorating the 9/11 destruction of the Twin Towers (Micieli-
Voutsinas 2010).
2. As Farmer (2004:308) notes, “Erasure or distortion of history is perhaps the most
common explanatory sleight- of- hand relied upon by the architects of structural
violence.” See also Hall 1996; Thompson 1975; Williams 1977; Zúñiga Núñez 2010.
3. Examples include Coutin and Hirsch 1998; Deloria 1969; DeLugan 2012; Hamber
and Wilson 2002; Moodie 2011; and Taylor 1997.
4. Analyses of such scapegoating include Chavez 2001, 2003, 2008; Higham 2002; Perea
1997; and Suárez- Orozco and Suárez- Orozco 1995.
5. Relatedly, Johnson (1996:268) notes that “the term alien masks the privilege of
citizenship and helps to justify the legal status quo.”
6. I do not mean to imply that emigration necessarily or naturally creates deep schisms.
Rather, I join Jansen and Löfving in calling for study of “the unequal, differential,
and contested processes by which persons come to be (dis)associated—and (dis)
associate themselves—with or from place” (2009:6).
7. Depoliticization and discursive transformation are analyzed in Anker 1992; Godoy
2002, 2005; Goldstein 2010; and Moodie 2006.
8. For accounts of such “returns,” see Hondagneu-Sotelo and Ávila 1997; Yngvesson and
Coutin 2006; and Zavella 2011.
9. These ambiguous or liminal zones are discussed in Bauböck 1994; Bosniak 2006;
Chavez 1992; Hammar 1990; and Menjívar 2006.
10. American Baptist Churches v. Thornburgh, 760 F. Supp. 796 (N.D. Cal. 1991).
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