With closer communication, easy circulation of capital, and unprecedented
international mobility of high-level manpower, states are today exposed
to more exit pressures than ever before. Small states are particularly
vulnerable to these pressures: a large country can often rather easily
accommodate an inflow of capital or manpower from a small country,
while an outflow of resources may represent a critical loss for the small
—albert o. hirschman, ‘‘exit, voice, and the state’’
revolutions are rare events, but instances of
unarmed citizens defying their rulers by means of fight or
by means of flight are not uncommon. In the fifteen years
following the collapse of East Germany, tens of thousands of
balseros took to rafts and leaky boats to escape Castro’s Cuba;
Suharto’s regime was upended by mass protest in Indonesia; a
massive, if long postponed, campaign of civil resistance top-
pled Milosevic in Yugoslavia; students staged demonstrations
against clerical rule in Iran; a broad civic movement challenged
the caesarism of Colonel Chavez in Venezuela; and popular
pressure secured democracy in the Ukraine. Even North Korea,
perhaps the most tightly controlled totalitarian regime in the
world, proved it was not completely immune to popular dis-
content as hundreds of thousands of oppressed and hungry
citizens fled over the northern border into China, apparently
persuading even this most immovable regime to experiment
with economic reform.
In some instances emigration and protest are not alternatives
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