A Note on Sources
The major archival sources for a study of Roosevelt and the Spanish Civil War can
found in the Franklin D. Roosevelt papers in the Roosevelt library, Hyde Park, N
York. The Official File (of), the President’s Personal File (ppf), and the Preside
Secretary’s File (psf) all contain important material. A large number of these do
ments have been reproduced in the series Franklin D. Roosevelt and Foreign Affa
which covers the period 1933–39. Edgar B. Nixon edited volumes 1–3, encompass
1933–36. Confusingly, the documents covering 1937–39 were later published in
separate series, which are identical except for being arranged in a different num
of volumes. It is the Clearwater version that is used in this book.
The State Department records in the National Archives contain thousand
documents related to the Spanish Civil War from the standpoint of the State
partment and U.S. foreign ambassadors and officials. Many of the key docume
are published in the series Foreign Relations of the United States (frus). The S
Department files are invaluable for comprehending official positions and the d
to-day operation of Spanish policy. They can be quite limited as a guide to
behind-the-scenes debates and particularly Roosevelt’s perceptions of Spain. T
also contain surprisingly little relevant material on the development of severa
the initiatives to aid the Spanish Republic in 1938. First, the president was w
of setting out his true beliefs in official documents. Second, Roosevelt someti
bypassed the State Department in policy making. Third, official documents of
suggest a unified and resolved administration position, masking the uncertaint
individuals and the divisions between factions and personalities. Fourth, me
randa occasionally excluded potentially embarrassing material, as with the co
aid episode. These documents can be supplemented by the Cordell Hull papers
memoirs, the Sumner Welles papers, the R. Walton Moore papers, the Claude
Bowers papers, and the Herbert Feis papers.
There are two very useful collections at Princeton University. The Joseph Gr
papers detail efforts to enforce the moral and legal embargo at a time when Gr
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