NOTES
1
An Introduction to Female Masculinity
For an extension of this discussion of tomboys see my article "Oh Bondage
Up Yours: Female Masculinity and the Tomboy," in Sissies and Tomboys: A
CLAGS Reader (New York: New York University Press, forthcoming).
2
For more on the punishment of tomboys see Phyllis Burke, Gender Shock: Ex-
ploding the Myths of Male and Female (New York: Anchor Books, 1996). Burke
analyzes some recent case histories of so-called
GID
or Gender Identity Dis-
order, in which little girls are carefully conditioned out of male behavior and
into exceedingly constrictive forms of femininity.
3 Carson McCullers, The Member of the Wedding (1946; reprint, New York: Ban-
tam, 1973),
1.
4 R.
C.
Lewontin, "Sex, Lies, and Social Science," New York Review of Books 42,
no. 7
(20
April I995): 24·
5 Thanks to Esther Newton for making this point and suggesting when and
how survey methods are useful. For an example of the kinds of questions used
in sex surveys see John Gagnon et al., Sex in America (Boston: Little Brown,
I994). This particular volume is remarkable because the explicit questions
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