1. Traveler quoted in Nielsen, From Sky Girl to Flight Attendant, 20. ‘‘Glamor
Girls of the Air,’’ Life, 25 August 1958, 68–76. The phrase ‘‘workplace feminism’’ is
from Cobble, ‘‘ ‘A Spontaneous Loss of Enthusiasm.’ ’’ I use ‘‘stewardess(es)’’ or
‘‘hostess(es)’’ along with ‘‘flight attendant(s)’’ for historical discussion through
the 1970s, when cabin crew began to prefer the gender-neutral title.
2. Quotation from ‘‘Fifty Years of Flight Attendants,’’ Flightlog, winter 1980, 6.
3. Quotation from ‘‘Labor Speaks Statement of Purpose,’’ Labor Speaks 2, no. 1
(May 1977): 8, in ‘‘Items from the twu Bulletin Board’’ folder, box 5, accession date
13 August 1981, Association of Flight Attendants Collection, Archives of Labor and
Urban A√airs, Wayne State University [hereafter cited as afa Collection].
4. The literature exploring the marginalization of female wage earners and
their struggles to be taken seriously is large and growing. For overviews see
Kessler-Harris, Out to Work; Baron, ed., Work Engendered; Milkman, ed., Women,
Work and Protest; Cobble, The Other Women’s Movement. On the labor move-
ment’s male orientation see Faue, Community of Su√ering and Struggle. On
‘‘work,’’ its meanings, and the consequences of how it is defined see Castel, ‘‘Work
and Usefulness to the World’’; Kessler-Harris, In Pursuit of Equity.
5. I am indebted to the insightful analyses of flight attendants’ work as emo-
tional labor in Hochschild, The Managed Heart, and, among responses to her
pioneering book, Whitelegg, ‘‘Cabin Pressure,’’ and Williams, ‘‘Sky Service’’; and
on the aesthetic as well as emotional labor demanded of flight attendants as
unacknowledged and unremunerated, Tyler, ‘‘Women’s Work as the Labour of
Sexual Di√erence’’; Tyler and Abbott, ‘‘Chocs Away’’; Tyler and Taylor, ‘‘The
Exchange of Aesthetics’’; Taylor and Tyler, ‘‘Emotional Labour and Sexual Di√er-
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