Notes
Introduction
1
Author interview, Eileen Hudon (Minneapolis, October 6, 1997), speaker’s
emphasis.
2
American Indian women had been active in the organizations of the 1960s and
early 1970s that resisted police brutality, forced sterilization, and further en-
croachment on Indian lands and that built programs to educate and empower
Indian youth, and so on. Women were among the founders of aim, among the
participants in well-publicized direct action takeovers, and provided leader-
ship and legwork to gain legal support for Indian men arrested for those
takeovers. Thus, when Women of All Red Nations (warn) formed in 1974, it
was self-evident that all of those issues were ‘‘women’s issues.’’ What warn
and other distinctly feminist groups added, however, was a critique of gender
relations and sexism within Native communities and organizations like aim,
as well as the gendered dimensions of U.S. dominance over Native Nations.
3
Baxandall and Gordon, eds., Dear Sisters, 1. Also see Rosen, The World Split
Open; Evans, Tidal Wave; internationally, Freedman, No Turning Back.
4
Author interview, Hudon.
5
The three other women involved with Hudon were Wanda Weyous, Leslie
Snow, and Norma Heider. Funding for Women of All Nations came in part
through legislation mandating the provision of a Native women’s shelter. State
Representative Karen Clark wrote and pushed the bill. Author interview,
Hudon; author interview, Karen Clark (St. Paul, September 30, 1995).
6
As feminist and cultural geographers have argued, space influences social
interaction and helps constitute gender, race, sexuality, class, age, ability, na-
tionality, and other forms of social status. Even public spaces have been com-
posed of barriers, prohibitions, and exclusions that not only direct traffic but
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