Author interview, Eileen Hudon (Minneapolis, October 6, 1997), speaker’s
American Indian women had been active in the organizations of the 1960s and
early 1970s that resisted police brutality, forced sterilization, and further en-
croachment on Indian lands and that built programs to educate and empower
Indian youth, and so on. Women were among the founders of aim, among the
participants in well-publicized direct action takeovers, and provided leader-
ship and legwork to gain legal support for Indian men arrested for those
takeovers. Thus, when Women of All Red Nations (warn) formed in 1974, it
was self-evident that all of those issues were ‘‘women’s issues.’’ What warn
and other distinctly feminist groups added, however, was a critique of gender
relations and sexism within Native communities and organizations like aim,
as well as the gendered dimensions of U.S. dominance over Native Nations.
Baxandall and Gordon, eds., Dear Sisters, 1. Also see Rosen, The World Split
Open; Evans, Tidal Wave; internationally, Freedman, No Turning Back.
Author interview, Hudon.
The three other women involved with Hudon were Wanda Weyous, Leslie
Snow, and Norma Heider. Funding for Women of All Nations came in part
through legislation mandating the provision of a Native women’s shelter. State
Representative Karen Clark wrote and pushed the bill. Author interview,
Hudon; author interview, Karen Clark (St. Paul, September 30, 1995).
As feminist and cultural geographers have argued, space influences social
interaction and helps constitute gender, race, sexuality, class, age, ability, na-
tionality, and other forms of social status. Even public spaces have been com-
posed of barriers, prohibitions, and exclusions that not only direct trafﬁc but