n o t e s
Chapter 1: (Re)inventing Ayurveda
1 The names of respondents in this work are pseudonyms. The descriptions of
respondents who spoke with me about potentially sensitive subjects have
also been fictionalized to some extent.
2 The five techniques of pancakarma, along with the various techniques, in-
cluding massage, that are used to prepare a person for pancakarma, are
discussed more fully in chapter 5.
3 I have parenthesized the ‘‘re’’ simply as a reminder that in redefining Ayur-
veda, practitioners and others simultaneously presume its prior existence,
stabilizing an eclectic range of specific and local healing practices into a
culturally bounded body of knowledge.
4 Jaggi (1981) estimates that the word Ayurveda was first coined between 800
and 600 b.c.
5 For a detailed account of this dual medical training and the biomedical
training that succeeded it, see Jaggi (1996).
6 See Arnold (1993 and 1987) for a detailed account of the colonial disciplines
imposed on Indian bodies, as well as for an account of resistance to these
7 See Prakash (1992).
8 In his discussion of mimesis Taussig (1993) o√ers the valuable insight that
such a sign draws not only essence but also power from the referent.
9 In Chatterjee’s scheme, the nationalist forms compose the thematic, and the
national content, the problematic. I am inspired here by his observation that
the dynamic between the thematic and problematic can ‘‘produce at critical
junctures a thoroughgoing critique of the thematic itself’’ (1986, 43).
10 The process is parallel to that documented by Cohn (1987b), who showed
how the collection of cases in Indian juridical documents was reconceived
by the colonialists as a civil code, rendering an assortment of situationally
specific dispute practices as universalist statutes.
11 Each of these terms has particular political ramifications, particularly when
used by practitioners or proponents of a certain type of medicine. ‘‘Modern’’