1. Until 1949, Edwards Air Force Base was known as Muroc Army Air Field.
2. On Stapp’s rocket- sled experiments at Edwards, see Stapp, “Human Exposures to
Linear Deceleration”; Spark, “The Fastest Man on Earth”; and Stapp, “Human Tolerance
3. My discussion of the legend of Murphy’s Law draws on Spark, “The Fastest Man on
4. This uncommon variant is notable as the only one that does not imply the notion of
error or failure.
5. “Crash of Flight 447.”
6. Downie and Wald, “More Bodies Recovered Near Site of Plane Crash,” www
.nytimes .com/2009/06/08/world/americas/08plane .html.
7. Clark, “Bodies from 2009 Air France Crash Are Found,” http://www .nytimes .com
8. Clark, “Silence Still from Resting Place of Air France Recorder,” http://query
.nytimes .com/gst/fullpage .html?res=9B02E7D61E3DF933A05755C0A96F9C8B63.
9. Clark, “Bodies from 2009 Air France Crash Are Found.”
10. See Clark, “Bodies from 2009 Air France Crash Are Found”; and Hylton, “The
Deepest End.” remus is an acronym for Remote Environmental Monitoring Unit Sys-
11. Clark, “Second Black Box Found in Air France Crash,” www .nytimes .com/2011/05
12. Clark, “Data Recovered from Air France Flight Recorders,” www .nytimes
14. Bureau d’Enquêtes et d’Analyses pour la Sécurité de l’Aviation Civile, Final Report
on the Accident on 1st June 2009 to the Airbus A330‑203, 203.
15. I borrow the term protocols from Lisa Gitelman, who writes that protocols “include
a vast clutter of normative rules and default conditions, which gather and adhere like a
nebulous array around a technological nucleus. Protocols express a huge variety of social,
economic, and material relationships” (Always Already New, 7).
16. Calinescu, Five Faces of Modernity, 41.