Index
Abolition, 19, 25–42, 48, 58–61, 139;
and black newspapers, 88, 116; and
censorship, 26, 28, 30–31; Garrison
as supporter of, 175–76; and literary
activities, 100–101, 111; and slave nar-
ratives, 119–23, 346 n.86; and
women, 64, 67
Accommodation, 17; Booker T. Wash-
ington’s, 143, 159–62, 164–65
acs. See American Colonization
Society
‘‘Ada’’ (pseudonym). See Forten, Sarah;
Hacker, Eliza Earle
Adams, Eliza, 209
Adams, Janus, 306
Adams, John Quincy, 28, 321 n.9
Addison, Joseph, 31
Advertisements, 93–94, 97, 114, 132, 134
Aeschylus, 173
Africa, 33, 34, 47. See also Emigration
Afric-American Female Intelligence
Society (Boston), 68–73, 77–78, 332
n.92
African Americans: as audience for
African American newspapers, 6, 20,
86, 88–89, 92–93, 106–7, 112–13, 115,
130, 131, 139; depiction of, in televi-
sion and film, 306; free northern, 3–
4, 14–15, 19–20; free southern, 31;
historical invisibility of readers
among, 4; literary societies’ debates
about, 143–86; literary tradition of,
7, 12, 41, 98, 194–95, 228–32, 298,
307; mutual aid societies among
antebellum, 24, 42–49, 57, 332 n.92;
no monolithic community of, 14–16,
35, 46, 71, 191; oral traditions, 5–6,
13, 209; rise of literacy, 4–5; scholarly
neglect of literary history of, 4–6,
12–13, 137; literacy of, 10–11, 13–14;
as soldiers, 175; whites’ perception of,
31–33, 35, 48–49, 81, 82, 85, 89–90,
94, 97, 98–100, 124, 129–30, 141–42,
146, 149, 167–68, 175, 178, 193–94,
223; whites’ exclusion of, 37, 48, 105–
6, 192, 244, 249, 364 n.37; at World’s
Columbian Exposition, 199. See also
Citizenship; Community; Literacy;
Literary societies; Nationalism; New
Negro; Politics; Public sphere; Racial
identity; Representation; Resistance;
Slavery; Unity; Women’s clubs;
Names of specific black writers, their
works, and their organizations
African Free Schools (New York City),
93, 94
African Lodge of the Prince Hall
Masons, 37–41
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