1 See ‘‘Obama Signs Hate Crimes Bill into
Law,’’ Washington Times, October 29, 2009.
2 See Christopher Drew, ‘‘Victory for Obama
over Military Lobby,’’ New York Times, Oc-
tober 29, 2009.
3 The 2010 ndaa is the largest single ap-
propriation to the Department of Defense.
However, when measured as a percent-
age of the gross domestic product (gdp),
the amount is lower than appropriations
for defense spending during the Reagan
administration (1980–88). Additionally,
the total amount of defense spending an-
nually in the George W. Bush administra-
tion (2000–2008) exceeded this amount
because of the accounting techniques and
supplemental appropriations used by that
administration. Nonetheless, the contents
of the 2010 ndaa support the claim that its
passage was a victory for the Democratic
Party over the military-industrial oligar-
chy that supports the Republican Party.
Yet neither party seemed to notice the so-
cial and political meanings of ‘‘disclosure,’’
‘‘procedure,’’ and ‘‘transparency,’’ and the
information that those terms relate when
used to characterize the single largest de-
fense appropriations bill signed by a US
president—and signed during a period in
which the United States is actively com-
mitted to regional wars as crucial to its na-
tional security. In the interest of national
security, the United States has engaged in
practices that disrespect other regions’ sov-
ereignty as well as international laws against
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