1. John Brewer, The Sinews of Power (N.Y.: Knopf, 1989), xv-xvi. Robert Higgs,
Crisis and Leviathan (N.Y.: Oxford Univ. Press, 1987),237. See also William N.
Parker, "The South in the National Economy, 1865-1970," Southern Economic
Journal 46 (April 1980): 1045.
2. The idea of Herrenvolk modernization is introduced in Peter Coclanis and Lacy
K. Ford, "The South Carolina Economy Reconstructed and Reconsidered," in
Winfred B. Moore, Jr., et aI., eds., Developing Dixie: Modernization in a Tradi-
tional Society (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1988), 102-3.
Leuchtenburg, "The Pertinence of Political History: Reflections on
the Significance of the State in America," Journal of American History 73 (Dec.
1986): 585-600, quotation on p. 592. For one comparison of the size of the
post-World War II American state in relation to those of Western Europe and
Japan, see Ian Gough, "State Expenditure in Advanced Capitalism," New Left
Review 92 (1975): 59; and Gough, The Political Economy of the Welfare State (Lon-
don: Macmillan, 1979), 79. Recent scholarship on these issues is reviewed in
Leuchtenburg, "The Pertinence of Political History"; and Theda Skocpol,
"Bringing the State Back In: Strategies of Analysis in Current Research," in
Peter Evans et aI., eds., Bringing the State Back In (N.Y.: Cambridge Univ. Press,
For an overview of this interpretation, see Richard Polenberg, "The Decline of
the New Deal," in John Braeman, ed., The New Deal: The National Level (Colum-
bus: Ohio State Univ. Press, 1975).
C. Vann Woodward, Origins of the New South
(Baton Rouge: Loui-
siana State Univ. Press, 1951). Dwight B. Billings, Jr., Planters and the Making of
the "New South" (Chapel Hill: Univ. of N.C. Press, 1979). Jonathan M. Wiener,
Social Origins of the New South: Alabama,
(Baton Rouge: Louisiana
State Univ. Press, 1978).
6. V. O. Key, Jr., Southern Politics: In State and Nation (N.Y.: Vintage Books, 1949),
7. Rupert Vance, "The Profile of Southern Culture," in John Shelton Reed and
Daniel Singal, eds., Regionalism and the South: The Selected Papers of Rupert Vance
(Chapel Hill: Univ. of N.C. Press, 1982),43. The boundaries of the South and