1 See, for example, the results of a study carried out in 1967 in the Pacific port
town of Puntarenas: Miles Richardson and Barbara Bode, ‘‘Popular Medicine
in Puntarenas, Costa Rica: Urban and Societal Features,’’ in Community Culture
and National Change, ed. Richard N. Adams et al. (New Orleans: Middle Ameri-
can Research Institute, 1972), 261–69. Another anthropologist found a simi-
lar eclecticism and familiarity with conventional medicine among mestizo
sufferers in Peru and Chile in the early 1950s; see Ozzie G. Simmons, ‘‘Popular
and Modern Medicine in Mestizo Communities of Coastal Peru and Chile,’’
Journal of American Folklore 68, no. 267 (1955): 57–71.
2 The phrase is from Julyan G. Peard, ‘‘Tropical Disorders and the Forging of a
Brazilian Medical Identity, 1860–1890,’’ Hispanic American Historical Review
77, no. 1 (1997): 3. See also Julyan G. Peard, Race, Place, and Medicine: The Idea
of the Tropics in Nineteenth-Century Brazil (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press,
1999); Nancy Leys Stepan, Beginnings of Brazilian Science: Oswaldo Cruz, Medical
Research, and Policy, 1890–1920 (New York: Science History Publications,
1981); Nancy Leys Stepan, ‘‘The Interplay between Socio-economic Factors
and Medical Science: Yellow Fever Research, Cuba, and the United States,’’
Social Studies of Science 8 (1978): 397–424; Nancy Leys Stepan, ‘‘The Hour of
Eugenics’’: Race, Gender, and Nation in Latin America (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell Uni-
versity Press, 1991); Marcos Cueto, Excelencia científica en la periferia: Actividades
científicas e investigación biomédica en el Perú, 1890–1950 (Lima: Tarea, 1989);
Jaime L. Benchimol, Dos micróbios aos mosquitos. Febre amarela e a revolução pas-
teuriana no Brasil (Rio de Janeiro: Editorial Fiocruz, 1999). Jaime Benchimol,
ed., Manguinos do sonho à vida (Rio de Janeiro: Fiocruz, 1990); and Jaime L.
Benchimol, ‘‘Domingo José Freire e os primórdios da bacteriologia no Brasil,’’
Manguinhos: História, Ciência, Saúde 2, no. 1 (1995): 67–98.
3 Among them, see Ricardo González Leandri’s impressive Curar, persuadir, gober-
nar: La construcción histórica de la profesión médica en Buenos Aires, 1852–1886
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