index
Abel, Christopher, 159, 177
Acosta, Julio, 180–81, 191–92
Acuña, Irene, 200–202
African-based medicine, 2, 8,14, 19, 22,
31–33, 131–34, 144, 189, 198. See also
Ethnicity; Obeah
Afro-Caribbeans: of Costa Rica, 11, 33,
146
Agricultural workers, 175–77, 223
Alajuela: epidemics in, 12–13, 76; hospi-
tal in, 108; licensed midwives in, 151;
numbers of healers in, 62; physicians
in, 93, 98, 99, 225; unlicensed em-
pirics in, 26–30
Alberdi, Juan, 147
Allende Gossens, Salvador, 218–19
Alternative medicine: 15, 189, 214, 217,
231, 237. See also Carballo Romero,
Carlos; Homeopaths; Spiritists; Unor-
thodox healers
Alvarado, Carlos, 161–62
Alvarado, Lucas, 40, 45, 52
Ancylostomiasis. See Hookworm disease
Anesthesia, 51, 73–74, 103, 115, 122,
142, 194
Antillón, Sotero, 183–84, 186, 200–203
Apothecaries, 53, 126–30, 136; use of
term, 16
Aragón, Carlos, 109–13
Argentina, 8, 146, 147, 288 n.24; medi-
cal journals in, 78; medical reform in,
69–70, 82, 219–20
Arias, Arnulfo, 219
Arnold, David, 241–42 n.12
Bacteriology, 4–7, 25, 117, 158, 181,
211; and increased stature of physi-
cians, 124; revolution in, and medical
and hospital reform, 68–69, 74, 83–
93, 159, 222, 233
Bahia, 19, 51, 95. See also Tropicalista
School (Bahia)
Bananas, 11, 13, 93, 146, 159, 161. See
also Afro-Caribbeans; Limón; United
Fruit Company
Barber-surgeons, 26–29, 47, 59, 125,
132, 137; licensing of, by Pro-
tomedicato, 53–56; predominance of
blacks and mulattoes among, 33. See
also Brenes, Nicolás; Empirics; Eth-
nicity; Tooth pullers
Barboza Meléndez, Ramona, 129, 134
Barreda, Gabino, 68
Bastos, Francisco, 58–59
Benchimol, Jaime, 117
Billings, John S., 73–74.
Biomedicine, 3, 4, 8, 23, 25, 117, 155–
56, 190, 231–32, 235–36; as arm of
neocolonialism, 6, 9, 234; popular re-
sponses to, 8, 184; and positivism, 25,
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