This manuscript lay essentially dormant from spring 1995, when I submitted
it as a Ph.D. thesis, to summer 1999, when I finally had the time and, truth be
told, income to worry about it. Thus my first words of thanks deserve to go
to my new employer and academic life savior, Western Maryland College.
While all the faculty, administration, and especially my history colleagues
have been tolerant of my frantic e√orts to finish this book during my first
years of teaching, I especially want to mention President Joan Develin Coley
and Professor Ted Evergates, whose initial support helped me to realize my
dream of publishing, and Professor Donna Evergates, who never let me feel
guilty when the publisher’s deadlines conflicted with departmental ones.
At Yale my advisers John Merriman and Paul Kennedy made graduate
school a delight in more ways than just intellectual ones. I am overjoyed to
now call them friends, foremost, but also colleagues. Other professors whose
knowledge and kindness helped usher this book from hell to hardcover
include David Bell, Michael Burns, Roger Chickering, Sir Michael Howard,
Douglas Porch, Len Smith, Jay Winter, and my Duke readers—Paul Jan-
kowski and the anonymous reviewer. My grad school buddy, Talbot Imlay,
has put up with so many questions from me over the years that I feel guilty
being able to o√er only my thanks to him.
In France Professors Jean-Jacques Becker, Rémy Cazals, Jacques Julliard,
and Christophe Prochasson, whom I am sure have long forgotten me by
now, were gracious with their ideas and, most important for a novice Ameri-
can researcher, encouragement. L’Institut CGT d’Histoire Sociale was gra-
cious with its photos. Thanks, too, to the numerous archivists and librarians
from Kew to Carcassonne who survived my time constraints and accented
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