Notes
Preface
I.
Nancy F. Cott, The Grounding ofModern Feminism (New Haven: Yale
University Press,
1987);
and Paula Baker, "The Domestication of Politics:
Women and American Political Society,
1780-1920,"
Am,erican Historical
Review
89,
no.
3
(June
1984-): 620-4-7·
2.
Karen Offen, "Defining Feminism: A Comparative Historical Ap-
proach," Signs: Journal ofWomen in Culture and Society
14-,
no.
II
(Spring
1988):
119-57·
3.
Asuncion Lavrin identifies femaleness and femininity as the bases for
women's understanding ofthemselves in Latin American society. According
to Lavrin, the feminism articulated by feminists between
1898
and
1950
for
some meant equal civil rights with men. For others it implied education and
economic parity with men. For most feminists, however, equality before the
law did not imply "gender assimilation" or the adoption of male models of
behavior. These women viewed themselves in a community with men in
which gender roles were distinct but equally important. See Asuncion
Lavrin, Female) Feminine) and Feminist: Key Concepts in Understanding
Women)s History in Twentieth-Century Latin America (Bristol, England:
University of Bristol, Occasional lecture series no.
4-, 1988).
Chapter
I
I.
The manigua and mambises are images as central to nineteenth-century
Cuban patriotism as Antonio Maceo and Jose Marti. I rse al manigua or estar
en el manigua meant to take up arms, usually the machete, against the
Spanish army. The manigua referred to the untamed countryside, which
consisted
ofdry,
mountainous landscape in Oriente; flat fertile farmland in
Camagliey; and mountainous jungles in Pinar del Rio. To be in the manigua
meant to live in the wild under the most crude conditions with only
hammocks and provisions gotten from peasant communities for subsistence.
To go to the manigua meant to suffer deprivation in order to be free. Mambi
originally referred to Blacks from Santo Domingo, and the word connoted
bad, repulsive, vile, dirty, cruel, evil men, who made their living by conniving
and cheating. The Cubans used the term affectionately for themselves during
the Wars ofIndependence. Their troops were dirty, malnourished, yet fierce
independence fighters who contended with the superior Spanish forces with
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