NOT
~
S
I.
Historicizing the Postcolonial Andean Predicament
I
For an introduction to the problems of nation-state formation in the Andes, see
Jean Paul Deler and Yves Saint-Geours, eds.,
Estados y naciones en los Andes
(Lima,
I986),
Heraclio Bonilla, "Comunidades indigenas y estado naci6n en el Peru,"
in Alberto Flores Galindo, ed.,
Comunidades campesinas: Cambios y permanencias
(Lima,
I987),
pp.
I3-27,
and Bonilla, ed.,
Los Andes en la encrucijada: Indios, comu-
nidades y estado en
el
siglo XIX
(Quito,
I99I).
2
Benedict Anderson,
Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread
of
Nationalism
(London and New York,
I99I).
3 On "national" novels in postcolonial Latin America, see Doris Sommers,
Founda-
tional Fictions: The National Romances
of
Latin America
(Berkeley,
I99I).
4
Eric Hobsbawm,
Nations and Nationalism since
q80:
Programme, Myth, Reality
(Cambridge,
I990).
5 On "primordialist" versus "modernist" positions on nations and nationalism, see
Anthony D. Smith,
The Ethnic Origins
of
Nations
(Oxford,
I986).
6 Thomas E. Skidmore and Peter H. Smith,
Modern Latin America
(New York and
Oxford,
I992),
p.
6.
7 Anderson,
Imagined Communities.
8 In now classical essays on the uses of anthropology for the study of political cul-
ture, Geertz characterized the "new states" of ethnographic Africa and Asia as,
to paraphrase, neither the indigenous "peasant states" of the precolonial past nor
the unmediated reproductions of "modern" European nation-states. See Clifford
Geertz,
The Interpretation
of
Cultures
(New York,
I973),
pp.
338-40.
9
Clifford Geertz, ed.,
Old Societies and New States
(New York,
I963).
IO
Anderson draws too sharp a contrast between the ethnic and linguistic makeup of
the American Creole republics and the postcolonial "new states" of Africa and Asia
by misleadingly generalizing the relatively more homogeneous cultural and linguis-
tic composition of modern Argentina and Venezuela to all the American republics.
II
Anderson,
Imagined Communities (I983),
pp.
50-65.
In the revised edition of
Imag-
ined Communities (I99I),
Anderson, in a move designed to emphasize the early
nature of American states, changed the chapter title "Old Empires, New Nations"
to "Creole Pioneers."
12
Anderson,
Imagined Communities (I99I),
p.
52.
Masur,
Sim6n Bolivar
(Albu-
querque,
I948),
p.
678.
Still, Anderson and Masur do not have it quite right. In
Spanish South America, the boundaries of the new Creole republics did not so
neatly correspond to the wider jurisdictions of the long and foundational Habs-
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