y demonstrating how a ‘‘universal’’ psychical construct en-
ables disenfranchised spectators to find a place in a society
does not always accommodate or directly address their
needs and desires, and that often ignores their political concerns, this
book responds to continuing debates regarding the interrelation of
narrative modes, fantasy operations, and the social practices of indi-
vidual spectators and spectatorial ‘‘communities.’’ That the spectato-
rial negotiation of star sexuality constitutes an act of social resistance
is most clearly demonstrated in the contemporary historical period, in
which members of a specific subculture have found ways to become
more visible to one another, and also to mainstream culture, through
the development and widespread circulation of their own publications
and discourses, and through the still largely unregulated new media
technologies of the Internet. Gay men have secured their efficacy as
social ‘‘agents’’ by developing and sharing narratives and scenarios that
mainstream culture does not formally authorize.
In queer theory and star studies, this work opens up further ave-
nues of investigation of the instability of star/spectator relations across
time. As we have seen, it is not only the construction of star personas
that changes, but also the personal, social, and political concerns of
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