1 Andrew Ross, ‘‘Uses of Camp,’’ in No Respect: Intellectuals and Popular Culture
(New York: Routledge, 1989), 139.
2 Richard Dyer, Heavenly Bodies: Film Stars and Society (London: BFI Press,
1986); Janet Staiger, Interpreting Films: Studies in the Historical Reception of
American Cinema (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992).
3 Ross, ‘‘Uses of Camp,’’ 158.
4 Stuart Hall, ‘‘Encoding/Decoding,’’ in Culture, Media, Language: Working
Papers in Cultural Studies, ed. Stuart Hall, Dorothy Hobson, Andrew Loew,
and Paul Willis (London: Hutchinson, 1980).
5 Elizabeth Cowie, Representing the Woman: Cinema and Psychoanalysis (Minne-
sota: University of Minnesota Press, 1997), 133.
6 Christine Gledhill, ‘‘Signs of Melodrama,’’ in Stardom: Industry of Desire, ed.
Christine Gledhill (New York: Routledge, 1991), 212.
7 Dyer, Stars, 50.
8 Linda Williams, ‘‘Film Bodies: Gender, Genre, and Excess,’’ Film Quarterly
(Summer 1991): 2–13.
9 Ibid., 11–12.
10 Steve Neale, ‘‘Melodrama and Tears,’’ Screen 27, no. 6 (November/December
1986): 19.
11 Mary Desjardins, ‘‘Meeting Two Queens: Feminist Filmmaking, Fan Cul-
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