1 ‘‘At First I Was Laughing’’
1 The notion of social fields has been used both in British social anthropology and by
Pierre Bourdieu and those who built on his theory of social practice. See Barnes 1954
and 1979; and Bourdieu and Wacquant 1992. With its focus on human interaction and
situations of social relationship, the concept of social fields facilitates an analysis of the
processes by which international migrants become incorporated into a new state and
maintain ongoing social relationships with persons in the sending state. Whether the re-
lationships are egalitarian or exploitative, and whether they are with co-ethnics or oth-
ers in the new society, is a matter of empirical investigation (see, for example, Basch,
Glick Schiller, and Szanton Blanc 1994; and Glick Schiller and Fouron 1999).
2 For a sensitive account of situations in which Haitian immigrants in the United States
cut their ties, see Richman 1992b.
3 Historically, in Haiti, people were more familiar with the term patriotism than national-
ism. Those who used both words terms tended to see patriotism as devotion to country
and nationalism as the struggle for the equality of Haiti in the world of nations. These
distinctions have recently blurred, and so we speak of the contemporary Haitian trans-
national identification with Haiti as nationalism.
4 We adopted this term from Benedict Anderson 1993, 1994.
5 See Appadurai 1991; Featherstone, Lash, and Robertson 1995; Mittleman 1996c; and
Soysal 1994.
6 See Appadurai 1993; and Canclini 1995.
7 The future of nation-states or even territorially based government has been debated re-
cently by increasing numbers of scholars intent on spelling out the implications of glob-
alizing processes. See Appadurai 1993; Camilleri and Falk 1992; and Mittleman 1996a,
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