a p p e n d i x
Colonialist and Women’s Organizations
The organizations that figure in this book have confusingly similar
names. This appendix o√ers brief descriptions of each, using the short-
ened version of the name that appears most frequently in the text.
German Colonial Society. This organization was created in 1887 out of the
merger of two older colonialist organizations: the German Colonial
Association (Deutscher Kolonialverein), founded 1882, and Carl Pe-
ters’s Society for German Colonization (Gesellschaft für deutsche
Kolonisation), founded 1884. Several other colonialist organizations
that focused on topics such as commerce, geography, and emigration
also existed. These organizations had an overwhelmingly male mem-
bership and an exclusively male leadership.
Patriotic Women’s Leagues. This federation of conservative nationalist
women’s charities formed the largest aggregation of women’s groups
in Imperial Germany. The Women’s Association for Nursing became
an auxiliary (Hilfsverein) of the Patriotic Women’s Leagues in 1888.
Women’s Association for Nursing. This organization for colonial nursing
began in 1886 as the German-National Women’s League, founded by
Martha von Pfeil and Frieda von Bülow. After Bülow’s departure it
was renamed the German Women’s Association for Nursing in the
Colonies. In 1908, when it gained a closer a≈liation with the Red
Cross, its name was changed to German Women’s Red Cross Asso-
ciation for Nursing in the Colonies. In 1922 its name changed once
more, to German Women’s Red Cross Association for Germans
Overseas. It was ‘‘coordinated’’ into the Nazified Red Cross in 1936,
falling under the Main Division—Overseas. After the Second World
War it was refounded within the German Red Cross (Deutsches
Rotes Kreuz) as drk-Schwesternschaft ‘‘Übersee’’ e. V.