n o t es
Unless otherwise noted, all translations from the German are the author’s.
1 John Stuart Mill, On Liberty, with The Subjection of Women and Chapters
on Socialism, ed. Stefan Collini (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
2 Charles Fourier, The Theory of the Four Movements, ed. Gareth Stedman Jones
and Ian Patterson (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 130;
Friedrich Engels, ‘‘Socialism: Utopian and Scientific,’’ in The Marx-Engels
Reader, ed. Robert C. Tucker (New York: W. W. Norton, 1978), 690; and
Karl Marx, Early Writings, trans. Rodney Livingstone and Gregor Benton,
intro. Lucio Colletti (London: Penguin, 1974), 346–347.
3 Leila Ahmed, Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern
Debate (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992), 153, see also 151–155.
On imperialist language in feminist writings, see Clare Midgley, ‘‘Anti-
slavery and the Roots of ‘Imperial Feminism,’ ’’ in Gender and Imperialism,
ed. Midgley (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1998), 161–179. I
found analogous material in German feminists’ writings and presented it in
an unpublished paper, ‘‘Feminism and Empire,’’ at the Program for the
Study of Women and Gender, Rice University, on 24 March 1998.
4 Hartmut Pogge von Strandmann, ‘‘Domestic Origins of Germany’s Colo-
nial Expansion under Bismarck,’’ Past and Present 42 (February 1969): 140–
159. The locations and timing of annexations depended on more than
merely domestic factors, however.
5 Today, these lands comprise the following states: Namibia (German South-
west Africa), the Republic of Cameroon and part of Nigeria (German Cam-
eroon), the Republic of Togo and part of Ghana (German Togo), and
mainland Tanzania, Rwanda, and Burundi (German East Africa). German
New Guinea is now the northeastern mainland of Papua New Guinea, its
northern islands (Bismarck Archipelago, Bougainville, and Buka), and the
Republic of the Marshall Islands.
6 The leased Chinese region of what Germans called Kiautschou (Kiao-
Chow) is today called Jiaozhou. The islands gained in 1888, 1899, and 1900
are today, respectively, the Republic of Nauru; the Northern Mariana Is-
lands, Palau, and part of the Federated State of Micronesia; and Western
7 For population statistics and ranking of empires’ sizes, see Wolfgang J.
Mommsen, Imperialismus: Seine geistigen, politischen und wirtschaftlichen