a note on style
This book uses the system of Hanyu pinyin for the Romanization of Chi-
nese. Yet the names of places and people are spelled according to
Tongyong pinyi (a modiﬁcation of the Wade-Giles pinyin), a system hith-
erto adopted by the government of the Republic of China (Taiwan).
In the texts and references, I render Chinese names in the native order
of family name ﬁrst and given name without a comma, in cases where
original publication was in Chinese. Otherwise, the Western convention