1 The names of informants have been changed to protect their anonymity. I mostly
use ‘‘Filipino’’ instead of ‘‘Pilipino’’ to mean those who are citizens of the Philip-
pines and Filipino immigrants living in the United States regardless of legal
status. My use of the word Filipino with an ‘‘F’’ and not a ‘‘P’’ conforms with
most, if not all, of my informants’ usage. The debate regarding the use of ‘‘P’’ is
rooted in what many Filipino American activists and scholars in the Asian
American ethnic studies movement have considered to be an important symbolic
act of ethnic nationalism. For this group of people, the use of ‘‘P’’ is based in a
more ‘‘native’’ orthography. More importantly, my use of the word ‘‘Filipino’’
acknowledges that this book deals not only with people, practices, and ideas in
America but also in the Philippines, where the dominant English spelling, ‘‘Fil-
ipino,’’ connotes citizenship, culture, or people, while ‘‘Pilipino’’ refers to the
national language. Sometimes informants use the words Pinoy or Pinay, which
are diminutives for Filipino or Filipina. These words have resonance, albeit in
different ways, for Filipinos in the Philippines and those in the United States.
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