Ac know ledg ments
How to give voice to the voiceless indigenous slaves of early colonial Span-
ish and Portuguese America has been a preoccupation of mine for nearly a
de cade. But this critical inquiry would not have come to fruition without
the support of several grant agencies and institutions. An International Lec-
ture-Research Award from the Fulbright Commission (2004) and a Library
of Congress Fellowship in International Studies (2005) provided research
leaves to begin this endeavor. A National Endowment for the Humanities
(2008–2009), a Queen’s Research Initiation Grant (2007), an Advisory Re-
search Grant (2009), and a sabbatical from Queen’s University in 2011–2012
enabled me to collect archival information at the General Archive of the In-
dies, in Seville, Spain, and to work at the Nettie Lee Benson Latin American
Collection, in Austin, Texas.
I would like to thank the directors and staff of the archives I consulted,
especially the Archivo General de Indias (agi) and the Archivo General de
la Nación, Perú (agnp). I am grateful to the History Department at West-
ern Washington University for support in gaining essential library privileges
during the summers, since 2007, that I have spent researching and writing
in Bellingham.
I am especially grateful to Luis Miguel Glave for his decades- long friend-
ship and for providing excellent transcriptions of several of the Justicia court
cases. I also thank María Jóse Fitz and the two superheroes for their won-
derful hospitality during my stays in Seville. Susanne Seales also deserves
special recognition for her tireless work designing the structure of the da-
tabase and entering data into FileMaker, her revisions of bibliographies, her
drawing of maps, and her editorial critiques. I have the geographer Sarah
Bell to thank for most of the maps and charts. Amelia Almorza Hidalgo
found some trea sures digging through the notarial rec ords of the Archivo
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