1. Doña Inés de Pimentel was the wife of Don Fadrique Osorio de Toledo, mar-
quis of Villafranca.
2. agi, Justicia 1178, n. 4.
3. “Testimony, Bartolomé de las Casas,” agi, Justicia 1178, n. 4, s.f.
4. For Esteban, see agi, Justicia 1023, n. 1, r. 1, 112v; for Martín Quintín, see agi,
Justicia 1023, n. 2, r. 2, pieça 8; for Baltasar, see agi, Justicia 1038, no. 2, 33r.
1. See the recent, revisionist treatment of Las Casas in Castro, Another Face
of Empire, 2. The list of works on Las Casas is enormous. Several of the key
studies are by Friede and Keen, Bartolomé de las Casas in History; Giménez
Fernández, Bartolomé de las Casas: Delegado de Cisneros para la reformación
de las Indias; Giménez Fernández, Bartolomé de las Casas: Capellán de S.M.
2. Throughout this volume, I use the term indigenous to refer to the native people
of colonial Latin America.
3. See also Hanke, “Bartolomé de las Casas”; Hanke, “More Heat.”
4. Yannakakis, “Indigenous People and Legal Culture.”
5. The figure of 650,000 is an estimate, and probably on the low side. Given
rampant illegal slave- raiding activities and the lack of accurate rec ords, it is
diﬃcult to accurately determine the numbers of indigenous who were deraci-
nated from their homelands. Estimates for the Lucanas people of the Baha-
mas range from thirty thousand to forty thousand (Sauer, The Early Spanish
Main). Karen Anderson-Córdoba calculates that some 34,000 “foreign” slaves
(including Lucayos) were taken to Hispaniola and Puerto Rico (“Hispaniola
and Puerto Rico,” 10, 268). Enrique Otte estimates that six thousand slaves were
taken from the northern coast of Venezuela, Trinidad, Curaçao, and Cubagua,
but that seems low to me (Otte, Las perlas del Caribe; Otte, “Los jerónimos y el
tráfico humano en el Caribe”; and Mira Caballos, El indio antillano, 391–99).