1. The title of the next section alludes to Jean-Luc Godard’s famous saying, ‘‘Not a just image, just an
image’’ (‘‘Pas une image juste, juste une image’’; a more accurate translation of ‘‘juste’’ in the ﬁrst instance
would be ‘‘correct’’ rather than ‘‘just’’); Godard quoted by Gilles Deleuze (Deleuze 1995, 38). ‘‘[A] ‘just
image’ is an image that exactly corresponds to what it is taken to represent, but if we take images as ‘just
images’ we see them precisely as images, rather than correct or incorrect representations of anything’’
(translator’s note: Deleuze 1995, note 1, 190).
2. ‘‘A case of differend between two parties takes place when the ‘regulation’ of the conflict that opposes
them is done in the idiom of one of the parties while the wrong suffered by the other is not signiﬁed in
that idiom. . . . The differend is signalled by this inability to prove. The one who lodges a complaint is
heard, but the one who is a victim, and who is perhaps the same one, is reduced to silence’’ (Lyotard
1988, 9–10). Gayatri Spivak’s famous essay ‘‘Can the Subaltern Speak?’’ (Spivak 1988) can be seen as
elaborating on this formulation.
3. Anand Patwardhan, personal communication via email, 2001.
4. For the colonial administration, managing racial/cultural difference (the two were typically conflated)
meant that the public sphere to which it addressed itself could not simply take on the terms of the bour-
geois public sphere in Europe, as described by Jürgen Habermas (Habermas 1989, 1974). Habermas’s
neo-Kantian formulation has been subject to criticisms on several fronts (including by Habermas him-
self ). However, for my purposes its valency does not lie in its status as an accurate empirical account but
in its status as a normative framework for European modernity’s self-descriptions, from which modes
of publicness in the postcolonial nation-state (and indeed in the centers of colonial power) can be seen
to depart—in both senses, as beginning and as divergence.
5. This is most clearly evident in the work of Jean Baudrillard, whose cool tone barely contains its keening
for the real.
6. My use of the term ‘‘ethical’’ relates to the ethos as an arena where moral economies are put into per-
formative practice: I elaborate on this further in chapter 5.
7. For a succinct discussion of the problems with notions of indigenousness, see Gupta 1998, 18–20.