1. Introduction
1. During the first four years of British rule, until the o≈cial acceptance of the Mandate
in July 1922, Palestine was governed according to military rule. In anticipation of the
Mandate, civil administrative structures were put in place before the formal change-
2. These rhythms were deeply a√ected by the history of nationalism and national
conflict in Palestine but were not identical to it. Given the importance and often
overwhelming character of the national conflict in Palestine, the focus on nationalism
in much of the historiography on Palestine is neither surprising nor entirely mis-
taken. From the Palestinian Arab perspective, this attention has been politically
ameliorative, replacing a vision of Palestinians as passive or reactive only to Zionism
with a much more complex understanding of personal and communal identity.
Nonetheless, more remains to be understood about Palestinian history. For exam-
ples from the literature, see Muhammad Muslih, The Origins of Palestinian National-
ism (New York: Columbia University Press, 1990); Rashid Khalidi, Palestinian Iden-
tity: The Construction of Modern National Consciousness (New York: Columbia
University Press, 1997); William Quandt, Fuad Jabber, and Ann Mosely Lesch, The
Politics of Palestinian Nationalism (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973);
Jamal Nasser and Roger Heacock, eds., Intifada: Palestine at the Crossroads (New
York: Praeger, 1990); Zachary Lockman and Joel Beinin, eds., Intifada: The Palestin-
ian Uprising Against Israeli Occupation (Boston: South End Press, 1989); Nels John-
son, Islam and the Politics of Meaning in Palestinian Nationalism (London: Kegan Paul
International, 1982); Adnan Abu-Ghazaleh, Arab Cultural Nationalism in Palestine
(Beirut: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1973).
3. The Oslo Accords, signed by Yasser Arafat and Yitzhak Rabin in September 1993,
provided for the establishment of a Palestinian National Authority in parts of the
West Bank and Gaza Strip and for a withdrawal of Israeli troops from Palestinian
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