Introduction
In
1963
what we now call the Sixties began. For political historians that
year is memorable for the nuclear test ban treaty, the historic civil rights
March on Washington, U.S. help in overthrowing the Diem government in
Vietnam and the increase of American advisers there twentyfold, President
John F. Kennedy's visit to the Berlin Wall, the deepening Sino-Soviet split,
and the assassination in Dallas, among other events.
l
But in
1963
another
kind of history and another kind of politics were being made, in Green-
wich Village, New York City. This was a political history that had nothing
to do with states, governments, or armies, or with public resistance. It had,
instead, to do with art and its role in American life. For it was not only
the policymakers in Washington who were shaping American postwar cul-
ture, but also, importantly, groups of individuals setting forth models of
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