Gustavo J. Arcia is Senior Economist in the Center for International Development,
Research Triangle Institute, and Adjunct Associate Professor of Public Policy at Duke
University. Most of his current work is in social sector policy, education reform, pov-
erty measurement, and poverty reduction policies. During the past five years he has
worked in education reform in Ecuador, Honduras, and Nicaragua, and poverty analysis
in Nicaragua and Uzbekistan. He has also analyzed population-environment interac-
tions in Costa Rica and Ecuador, and conducted extensive studies of farming systems
in West Africa and Latin America. He is the author of several monographs and book
chapters on education reform in Latin America, and on poverty, economic, and social
policy in Central America.
William Ascher is Professor of Government and Economics, Dean of the Faculty, and
Vice-President at Claremont-McKenna College. Previously he was Director of Duke
University’s Center for International Development Research. His research is on policy-
making processes in developing countries, natural resource policymaking, Latin Amer-
ican and Asian political economy, and forecasting methodologies. His books on re-
sources and development include Scheming for the Poor: The Politics of Redistribution
in Latin America (Harvard University Press, 1984), Natural Resource Policymaking in
Developing Countries (with Robert G. Healy, Duke University Press, 1990), Communi-
ties and Sustainable Forestry in Developing Countries (ics Press, 1994), Why Govern-
ments Waste Natural Resources (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999), and The Cas-
pian Sea: A Quest for Environmental Security (ed. with Natalia Mirovitskaya, Kluwer,
Fikret Berkes is Professor of Natural Resources at the University of Manitoba, Win-
nipeg, Canada. His main area of expertise is common-property resources and com-
munity-based resource management, currently focusing on traditional ecological
knowledge and co-management. He teaches in these areas, contributes to theory devel-
opment, and carries out applied work both internationally and in the Canadian North.
He contributes as well to the literature of human ecology and conservation, biodiver-
sity, ecological economics, and environmental assessment. He has over one hundred
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