Barzun, Of Human Freedom, 21; Chandler, Selected Letters of Ray-
mond Chandler, 159.
Cain, Serenade in Three By Cain, 130.
Cain quoted at Hoopes, Cain: A Biography, 382.
Selected Letters of Raymond Chandler, 181, 68; Hammett, ‘‘Tulip,’’
The Big Knockover, 341; Thompson to Marc Jaffe (August 1, 1958),
NAL papers, Fales Library, New York University, series 2, box 71, file
Cf. Poggioli, The Theory of the Avant-Garde, 65–66.
Roosevelt, Public Papers and Addresses, 6: 1–6.
See Sellers, The Market Revolution, 364–95. Sellers describes the ex-
pansion of commercial relations as a ‘‘bourgeois/middle-class offen-
sive’’ (391); for a more celebratory account of the growth of capital-
ism and individualism in this era, see Howe, Making the American
Self, 8–17, 108–35. For a provocative argument tying the genesis of
the detective story to Poe’s effort to reconceive the relation of the
intellectual to the rapidly expanding capitalist market of Jacksonian
America, see Whalen’s ‘‘Edgar Allan Poe and the Horrid Laws of Polit-
ical Economy.’’
Karen Haltunnen’s superb recent book Murder Most Foul convinc-
ingly traces the emergence of the mystery story to the displacement of
providential ideas of justice and social order by liberal and secular
ones. Literary critics have been slower to grasp this relation. That
detective fiction is closely bound up with the history of liberal democ-
racy is a point made in passing or vaguely by a number of readers. See,
e.g., Porter, The Pursuit of Crime, 121, 120–26; Alewyn, ‘‘The Origin
of the Detective Novel,’’ 67; Knight, Form and Ideology in Crime
Fiction, 20–35; Miller, The Novel and the Police, 33–57; Moretti,
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