N ot e s
1. True History and Description of a Land belonging to the wild, naked, savage, Man-
munching People, situated in the New World, America.
2. The term “Tupi” is a collective term applied to a number of Tupí‑Guarani speaking
tribes such as the Caeté, Potiguara, Tamoyo, Timino, Tupinambá, and Tupiniquin,
who in the sixteenth century occupied extensive areas of the Brazilian Atlantic
coast from southern São Paulo to the mouth of the Amazon River. Now extinct, al-
though other Tupian speakers persist in Brazil, these widely dispersed tribal groups
showed considerable uniformity in language and culture (see map 1). For these rea-
sons the Tupinambá (Tuppin Imba), Staden’s captors, and the Tupinquin (Tuppin
Ikin), allies to the Portuguese, are not always distinguished and the generic term
“Tupi” is used unless such a disaggregation of particular groups is relevant to the
discussion. For a general summary of the ethnology of the Tupinambá and related
peoples see Métraux 1948.
3. For example, among the most recent works of this kind, see Barker, Hulme and
Iversen 1998, Creed and Horn 2001, Conklin 2001, Goldman 1999, Lestringant
1997, Madrueira 2005, Petrinovich 2000, Sanborn 1998, Turner 1999, Yue 1999,
Zheng 1996.
4. Karl Fouquet’s 1941 transcription of the Staden’s original text has been a source
for translations since then. Our translation likewise in part utilized Fouquet’s tran-
scription, but not uncritically, since we were careful to assess its fidelity to the origi-
nal. In fact, although it is in general a highly accurate transcription there are some
notable changes that were not made overt by Fouquet, such as the replacement of
Staden’s term “konig” (king) with “hauptling” (leader). Other German-language
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