Notes

Introduction
1.
Ravitch and Finn, What Do Our 17-Year-Olds Know? 53, 59, 60–61. Ravitch
and Finn write, “Eleventh graders generally know what the former [Tubman]
did. . . . But they do not understand the political context in which the Under-
ground Railroad and Harriet Tubman operated”: ibid., 76. They suggest that the
high name recognition given to Tubman was influenced by the showing of the
television drama A Woman Called Moses around the time of the history assessment
in the spring of 1986.
2.
This debate can be followed in Nash et al., History on Trial.
3.
“Biography of the Millennium Names the Top 100 Most Influential People
of the Past 1,000 Years,” available online at www.biography.com/features/
millennium/topten.html.
4.
“Harriet Tubman ‘Stamped’ into Black History Month,” Jet, vol. 53, Febru-
ary 23, 1978, 9.
5.
Quarles, “Harriet Tubman’s Unlikely Leadership,” 57.
6.
See Peterson, “Doers of the Word,” 24–55.
7.
Blight, Race and Reunion, 332.
8.
Quarles, “Foreword to the 1970 Edition,” v.
9.
Conrad, Harriet Tubman (1943).
10.
Clinton, Harriet Tubman; Humez, Harriet Tubman; Larson, Bound for the
Promised Land.
11.
Good places to begin include Connerton, How Societies Remember; Thelen,
Memory and American History.
12.
Blight, Beyond the Battlefield; idem, Frederick Douglass’ Civil War.
13.
Kammen, Mystic Chords of Memory, esp. 1–14.
14.
Peterson, Lincoln in American Memory.
15.
Schwartz, Abraham Lincoln and the Forge of National Memory.
16.
Blight, Beyond the Battlefield, 2.
17.
Kammen, Mystic Chords of Memory, 9–10.
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