1600–1046 BCe Shang dynasty.
1122–256 BCe Zhou dynasty (including the Western Zhou and the
Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods).
BCe–220 Ce Han dynasty.
618–907 Tang dynasty.
960–1279 Song dynasty.
1271–1368 Yuan (Mongol) dynasty.
1368–1644 Ming dynasty.
1644 Beginning of Qing (Manchu) dynasty.
1842 China defeated in the First Opium War. Signing of
the Nanjing Treaty, ceding Hong Kong to the British
and opening Guangzhou (Canton), Shanghai, Ningpo,
Fuzhou, and Xianmen to foreign trade.
1851–64 Taiping rebellion.
1854 Japan forced to open up to foreign trade.
1856 China defeated in the Second Opium War.
1858 Signing of the Tianjin Treaty, opening up additional
treaty ports and giving foreign missionaries the right
to preach in China.
1860 Burning of the Yuanming Yuan (Summer Palace) by
joint British-French forces and Signing of the Beijing
Convention whereby Kowloon Peninsula was ceded to