This book would not have been possible without access to the rich
holdings of the Museum of Image and Sound (mis) Archive in Lapa,
Rio de Janeiro, where I spent several satisfying months listening to
broadcasts recorded between the late 1930s and the 1960s. Of the many
debts I have incurred in the long process of writing this book, the first
is surely that owed to the mis-Arquivo, whose personnel have been
continually generous, insightful, and supportive. Ádua Nesi, Claudia
Mesquita, Marilza, Claudio, Lúcia, Laura, and Rita in particular o√ered
me more assistance than any visiting researcher could rightfully expect.
The Yale Council of International and Area Studies, the Mellon
Foundation, and the National Endowment for the Humanities Sum-
mer Stipend all contributed essential research funds.
I have drawn on the expertise and enthusiasm of a host of Latin
Americanist advisers; although this book falls far afield from some
of their concerns, it benefits from their example and support. Leslie
Damasceno encouraged me to study Brazil, Michael Jiménez held me
to a high scholarly standard for the first time, and Sandra Lauder-
dale Graham taught me to write and to find the mystery in my sub-
jects. Geo√rey Parker and Emília Viotti da Costa reminded me not to
lose track of the big questions. Gil Joseph, my doctoral adviser, has
been a source of inspiration, a model of generosity, and a good friend
My fellow students at Yale, particularly Nara Milanich, Amy Chazkel,
Tori Langland, Jolie Olcott, Greg Grandin, and Di Paton provided
intellectual engagement, commiseration when it was necessary, and
celebration at the key moments.
I have been fortunate to study modern Brazil, a field that allows me
the camaraderie of a cohort that knows how to find the joy in scholarly
inquiry. In Brazil, I enjoyed the good company of Noah Elkin, Tom
Jordan, Peter Beattie, Erica Windler, Tamera Marko, and Joel Wolfe.
Elsewhere, I have benefited from the friendship and collegiality of Jim