The following abbreviations of Bergson’s works have been used in the notes. Page
references to ds, dsmr, ec, mm, and pm are, first, to the critical editions published
by Presses Universitaires de France since 2007 (whose pagination is identical to
their previous editions), then to the authorized translations published in Bergson’s
lifetime. The bibliography provides detailed bibliographic information on the
translations and on other works by Bergson we refer to in the notes.
ds Durée et simultanéité, 1922; Duration and Simultaneity
dsmr Les deux sources de la morale et de la religion, 1932; The Two Sources of
Morality and Religion
Essai Essai sur les données immédiates de la conscience, 1889; Time and Free
Will: An Essay on the Immediate Data of Consciousness
ec L’Évolution créatrice, 1907; Creative Evolution
es L’Énergie spirituelle, 1919; Mind- Energy
mm Matière et mémoire, 1896; Matter and Memory
pm La pensée et le mouvant, 1934; The Creative Mind
Rire Le rire, 1900; Laughter
References to biblical texts are to the New Revised Standard Version.
1. Davidson, “Introductory Remarks,” 545.
2. We have not included two long early essays Jankélévitch wrote on Berg-
son: “Deux philosophies de la vie: Bergson, Guyau” (1924) and “Bergsonisme et
biologie” (1929), reproduced in Premières et dernières pages, 13–62 and 64–76. The
themes and theses of these two texts are developed throughout Henri Bergson,
especially in chapter 2, “Freedom,” and chapter 4, “Life.”
3. In a bibliographical note at the end of the introduction, page 3 of the
French text.
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